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Setting out for Construction-A Practical Guide to Site Surveying Edition 2020 (PDF)

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About

Edition: 2020
Pages: 651
Author(s): Saffron Grant
Publisher: Costello House Publishing
Language: English
Size: 215 Mb

The purpose of this book is to get essential information about setting out for construction into the hands of those who need it. Advances in technology, the decline of the traditional mentoring system and stretched resources in the further and higher education sectors mean that there are a growing number of people performing setting out activities without having a full understanding of the fundamental principles.

The aim of this book is to enable site engineers to follow good practice, to record all their work in a standardised way with all the correct checks in place and to keep evidence of them. Good setting out is not just about achieving the required accuracy, but getting the work done quickly, efficiently and professionally and with all the paperwork in place.

This book is designed to give you choices and flexibility in how you approach a task.
This book covers the basics so that you are not reliant on designers, equipment or electronic drawings to provide you with solutions. If you take the time to understand the first principles, it will repay you dividends over the course of your career. You will be more confident and more credible and most importantly, the better your understanding of the maths and theory, the less likely you are to make errors.

This book focuses on the most common tasks that setting out engineers do for the majority of the time. It is highly focused on employers’ needs and is concerned with the setting out aspects of construction projects rather than the mapping and surveying aspects ofthe land surveying profession.

This book covers everything from using basic tools such as tape measure, string line, chalk line and spirit level to more complex equipment such as the optical level, rotating laser level and total station.

The techniques covered in this book can be applied to setting out any type of construction works including earthworks, highways, bridges, buildings, drainage, water projects, reinforced concrete, structural steel work, foundations, rail.

Content

What other people have said about this book 5
Why I decided to write this book 33
The aim of this book 34
Who this book is for 35
The format of this book 36
What this book covers 37
What this book does not cover 37
About the Total Station Instructions in the Appendices 38
How to contact the author 40
How to work with the author 40
CHAPTER1 - INTRODUCTION
1.0 What is Setting Out? 43
1.1 Where does setting out fit into the bigger picture of a construction project? 44
1.2 Why is it important to keep good records? 44
1.3 What’s the difference between setting out and surveying? 45
1.4 What is good practice in Setting Out? 46
1.5 Why use good practice? 47
1.6 Why isn’t good practice always used? 47
1.7 What are the problems with bad practice? 48
1.8 What are the financial costs of setting out errors? 51
1.9 What are the challenges faced by engineers? 52
1.10 How can I communicate technical issues to lay-people? 52
1.11 What is the role of the engineer’s assistant? 52
1.12 Why is an assistant sometimes referred to as the chainman or chainboy? 53
1.13 How and why should I train my assistant? 53
CHAPTER 2 -WHEN YOU START ON A NEW SITE
2.1 What do I need to think about when I start on a new job? 56
2.2 The site is up and running. What should I do first? 56
2.3 Information you need: 57
2.4 Questions to find out the answers to: 57
2.5 I am starting on a brand-new site. What should I do first? 58
CHAPTER 3 -QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND DRAWINGS
3.1 what does quality management mean in the context of setting out? 60
3.2 What is a Survey Management File? 61
3.3 What should the Survey Management File contain? 62
3.4 What is a setting out plan? 62
3.5 What should a setting out plan cover? 62
CHAPTER 4 - DRAWINGS
4.1 Introduction to drawings 64
4.2 What is a Drawing Register? 64
4.3 How do I check the information on the drawing is correct? 64
4.4 what different types of drawings are there? 65
4.5 How do I interpret drawings? 66
4.6 is i t ok to scale from a drawing? 66
4.7 How do I use a scale rule? 67
4.8 How do I scale from a drawing with a normal ruler? 67
4.9 Is i t ok to photocopy drawings? 68
4.10 Is i t ok to use electronic versions of drawings? 69
CHAPTER 5 - ACCURACY, ERRORS AND TOLERANCES
5.1 What is the difference between accuracy and precision? 70
5.2 How can a measurement be precise but not accurate? 71
5.3 How can a measurement be accurate but not precise? 71
5.4 What is internal accuracy? 72
5.5 What is an error? 72
5.6 What are random errors? 75
5.7 What are systematic errors? 75
5.8 What are gross errors? 76
5.9 What is a tolerance? 76
5.10 How are tolerances determined? 76
5.11 How do I know what tolerances to work to? 76
5.12 What are typical construction tolerances? 77
CHAPTER 6 - TOOLS, MARKERS AND EQUIPMENT
6.1 What should my toolkit contain? 79
6.2 How do I mark my setting out? 80
6.4 How should I take care of equipment? 82
6.5 What is the difference between temporary and permanent adjustment? 84
6.6 What is meant by calibration and maintenance of equipment? 85
6.7 Should I hire or buy equipment? 85
6.8 How much does equipment typically cost? 86
6.9 How do I check if a spirit level is in correct adjustment? 86
CHAPTER 7 - SAFETY
7.1 What safety measures should I take? 88
CHAPTER 8 - LEVELING
8.1 What is leveling?  92
8.2 What leveling skills should I have? 92
8.3 What is a level? 93
8.4 What is leveling used for? 93
8.5 What are the different parts of the level? 94
8.6 What are the different cross-hair arrangements? 97
8.7 About the tripod 98
8.8 Leveling terminology 98
8.9 About the staff 101
8.10 How should I line up the cross-hairs on the staff? 105
8.11 How do I read the staff? 1° 6
8.12 What is a level survey? 107
8.13 What is the purpose of a level survey? 1° 7
8.14 How do I carry out a basic level survey? 108
8.15 How do I calculate the HPC? 109
8.16 Where should I set up my level? 109
8.17 What if I cannot view all the points i need to from a single set-up position? 110
8.18 How should I book my leveling results? 111
8.19 Should I set up on hard or soft ground? 112
8.20 How should I setup on soft ground? 112
8.21 How should I set up on hard ground? 112
8.22 How should I set up on a polished surface? 112
8.23 Can I work in the rain? 113
8.24 Does the curvature of the Earth affect staff readings? 113
8.25 Why not use the scale on the back of the staff with marked graduations? 113
8.26 Can I use a tape measure instead of a staff? 114
8.27 How do I takean inverted staff reading? 115
8.28 How do I set construction elements to a fixed level? 117
8.29 How do I mark a datum by setting the height of acclimation at the correct level?120
8.30 What are stadia hairs? 120
8.31 What is stadia hair tacheometry? 121
8.32 How do I measure a horizontal distance using the stadia hairs? 121
8.33 How accurate is stadia hair distance measurement? 122
8.34 What is reciprocal leveling? 122
8.35 What different types of level are there? 123
8.36 What is an automatic level? 123
8.37 What is a dumpy level? 123
8.38 What is a digital level? 123
8.39 How accurate is a digital level? 123
8.40 Why use a digital level instead of an optical level? 124
8.41 What are the drawbacks of the digital level? 124
8.42 What is precise Leveling? 125
8.43 What is a laser level? 126
8.44 How do I use the laser level? 127
8.45 Do I need to carry out a two-peg test on my laser level? 128
8.46 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the laser Level? 128
8.47 Can I use a laser level for structural concrete slabs? 129
CHAPTER 9 - ERRORS IN LEVELING
9.1 What are the sources of error in leveling? 130
9.2 What are the types of error in leveling? 131
9.3 What are random errors in leveling? 131
9.4 What if the base plate of the staff is missing? 132
9.5 What if the bottom of the staff is damaged or dirty? 134
9.6 How can I avoid damaging the base of the staff with concrete? 135
9.7 What if the clips on the staff are damaged? 135
9.8 What if there is condensation within the level? 136
9.9 What is a staff misreading error? 136
9.10 How can I reduce the risk of misreading the staff? 136
9.11 What is a parallax? 138
9.12 What is a staff vertically error? 139
9.13 How can staff vertically error be eliminated? 140
9.14 What is the likely magnitude of a staff vertical error? 140
9.15 What is the correct way to rock the staff? 140
9.16 What if it is not possible to rock the staff? 141
9.17 What is refraction? 142
9.18 How can I minimise the risk of error caused by the level moving during use? 142
9.19 How can I minimise the risk of using the wrong value for a TBM? 143
9.20 How can I minimise the risk of using the wrong TBM? 144
9.21 How can I minimise the risk of misreading drawings or using the wrong version of a drawing? 145
9.22 What is the effect of ground movement at TBMs? 145
9.23 How can I minimise the effects of calculation errors? 147
9.24 Using the wrong edge of the electrical tape 148
9.25 How do I minimise the effects of weather conditions? 148
9.26 How can I avoid reading to the wrong cross-hair? 149
9.27 How can I avoid forgetting to level the instrument? 151
9.28 What should I do if there is poor visibility? 152
9.29 Why isn't the bubble working? 152
9.30 The foot screws won't turn any further. What shall I do? 153
9.31 Why isn't the focus working?  153
9.32 Why am I getting erroneous results? 154
CHAPTER10 - INSTRUMENT CHECKS ON THE LEVEL
10.1 What checks should be carried out on the level? 155
10.2 When should I carry out instrument checks on my level? 155
10.3 What is a collimation error? 155
10.4 How do i check if my Level has a collimation error? 156
10.5 What is the principal of the two-peg test? 157
10.6 How do I carry out the two-peg test? 158
10.7 What assumptions are we making when we do the two-peg test? 160
10.8 What should I do if I discover a collimation error in my level? 160
10.9 How can I minimise the effect of a collimation error? 162
10.10 What are the acceptable limits for collimation error? 162
10.11 Can I adjust the line of collimation myself? 162
10.12 How do I adjust the line of collimation? 163
10.13 How can I make the two-peg test quicker? 164
10.14 What is likely magnitude of a collimation error? 164
10.15 What are possible causes of a collimation error? 164
10.16 Do i really need to carry out a two-peg test on my level? 165
10.17 Are there any circumstances where I would not need to carry out the two-peg test?165
10.18 How do I check the compensator? 165
10.19 How can I check that the compensator is working correctly? 166
10.20 How can I minimise the risk of a compensator error? 166
10.21 What shall I do if the compensator is not working? 167
10.22 What if my level does not have a compensator? 167
10.23 My Level doesn't have a compensator reset button. What does that mean? 167
10.24 What is the possible magnitude of a compensator error? 167
10.25 How do ) check that the pond bubble is in correct adjustment? 167
10.26 What should I do if the pond bubble is out of adjustment? 168
10.27 Should I adjust the pond bubble myself? 168
10.28 How do I adjust the pond bubble? 168
CHAPTER 11 - TOTAL STATION
11.1 About the total station 170
11.2 What can total stations be used for? 171
11.3 What total station skills should I have? 172
11.4 Total Station Errors 172
11.4 What is the horizontal circle? 174
11.5 What is the vertical circle? 174
11.6 What are opposite faces in a total station? 174
11.7 How do I know which is face left and face right? 175
11.8 How do I change faces? 175
11.9 Why would I need to change faces? 175
11.10 How do I set out a point using both faces? 176
11.11 What is the maximum sight distance of a total station? 176
11.12 How is the distance accuracy of the total station expressed? 176
11.13 How should I line up the cross-hairs on a target? 177
11.14 What is the procedure for lining up the cross-hairs for measuring or setting out a position? 178
11.15 What is the procedure for the lining up the cross-hairs for measuring or setting out a level? 182
11.16 What is a backsight when using the total station? 185
11.17 Why should backsights be as far away as possible when using a total station? 185
11.18 What are the different types of target? 185
11.19 What is the prism constant? 186
11.20 What will happen if I use the wrong prism constant? 187
11.21How do I select the correct prism constant? 188
11.22 Why do Leica have a different prism constant system to other manufacturers? 188
11.23 What is a 360-degree prism? 189
11.24 What is a multi-track prism? 189
11.25 What's the difference between an active and passive target? 190
11.26 What are retro targets? 190
11.27 What are the benefits of retro targets? 191
11.28 What are the Limitations of retro targets? 191
11.29 What is reflectorless mode? 192
11.30 What are the disadvantages of reflectorless mode? 192
11.31 Simple distance measurement using the total station 192
11.32 How do I measure a distance using the total station? 193
11.33 What’s the difference between the plan distance and slope distance? 193
11.34 What is the accuracy of the distance measurement function? 194
11.35 What are the sources of error in distance measurement? 194
11.36 How can I minimise distance measurement errors? 194
11.37 What if the prism is twisted/rotated? 195
11.38 What if the cross-hair is not exactly at the vertical centre of the prism? 195
11.39 How do I set up the total station? 195
11.40 What is the process for setting up on a known point?  196
11.41 Why would I need to set up over a point? 196
11.42 What is the procedure for setting up the total station (with an optical plummet and long bubble) over a point? 196
11.43 What is the procedure for setting up the total station (with a laser plummet and digital bubble) over a point? 201
11.44 Can I centre over the nail by attaching the total station first and then positioning the tripod head? 202
11.45 Why is the circular bubble going wrong when I adjust the long bubble? 203
11.46 How can I set up over a point more quickly? 203
11.47 How do I set up on soft or uneven ground? 204
11.48 Does i t really matter how I set up over a point? 204
11.49 How long should it take to set up the total station over a point? 205
11.50 I can't get the instrument over the nail and level! What am I doing wrong? 205
11.51 I can’t get the long bubble centred! What is going wrong? £3 207
11.52 Why can’t I see the nail through the optical plummet? st? 208
11.53 How do I focus the optical plummet on the nail? sP 208
11.54 What is a resection? 209
11.55 What are the advantages of a resection? 209
11.56 What are the potential pitfalls in using a resection? 210
11.57 What does the error mean in a resection? 210
11.58 How do I improve the accuracy of my resection? 211
11.59 Why should the angle between backsights of a resection be 90 degrees? 213
11.60 When is a resection not suitable? 214
11.61 How do ! use the total station for measuring and setting out reduced levels? 215
11.62 How do I use a 3D resection for measuring and setting out reduced levels? 215
11.63 What can go wrong with using a 3D resection for reduced levels? 218
11.64 How do ( use the known point set-up method for measuring and setting out reduced levels? 218
11.65 How do I use the tie distance/compute inverse function for measuring and setting out reduced levels? 220
11.66 What are the different manufacturers of total stations? 220
11.67 What are the differences between total stations of different manufacturers? 221
11.68 What is a digital theodolite? 221
11.69 What is a robotic total station? 221
11.70 What robotic total station skills should I have? 224
11.71 Do I need a mechanical total station or a one-man robotic? 224
11.72 I have connected the total station to the controller, but I can't find data which I have input. Why not? 225
11.73 Is a robotic total station more accurate than a standard total station? 225
11.74 The robotic total station cannot find the prism. What might be wrong?£3 226
11.75 Canthe robotic total station lock onto the wrong target? 226
11.76 Can I use the robotic total station as a two-man instrument? 226
11.77 What is a point ID? 226
11.73 What is a point code? 227
11.74 What is a code list? 227
CHAPTER 12 - INSTRUMENT CHECKS ON THE TOTAL STATION
12.1 How often should I carry out total station field checks? 229
12.2 How should I record the total station checks? 230
12.3 Horizontal collimation check 230
12.3 Vertical collimation check 232
12.4 What is an acceptable error for the horizontal or vertical collimation check? 234
12.5 Diaphragm orientation check 234
12.6 Truncation Axis Check 236
12.7 Optical plummet check 237
12.8 Laser plummet check 237
12.9 Prism constant check 237
CHAPTER 13 - TOTAL STATION FUNCTIONS
13.1 What is the difference between the 'MEAS’and the ‘DIST’ buttons? B 239
13.2 Tie distance/compute inverse function (also called 'compute inverse' or ‘missing line measurement')  240
13.3 What is the Tie Distance/Compute Inverse function useful for? 242
13.4 How do I use the Tie Distance/compute inverse function to measure a level difference?  242
14.5 What's the difference between GPS and GNSS? 257
14.6 What are the pros and cons of GNSS? 257
14.7 How does GNSS work? 258
14.8 What are the limitations of GNSS? 259
14.9 How does the rover get a signal? 259
14.10 How does a base and rover work? 260
14.11 What affects the accuracy of GNSS? 261
14.12 What is PDOP? 262
14.13 What accuracy can be achieved with GNSS? 262
14.14 What is a transformation to local coordinate system? 262
14.15 How can I improve the quality of a site calibration? 263
14.16 How can I check my set-up is correct? 263
14.17 Scale factors 264
14.18 Measurement options 264
14.19 What if I lose internet connection? 264
14.20 What checks should I do on my GNSS equipment? 264
14.21 What can go wrong with GNSS? 265
CHAPTER15 - TAPE MEASURESANDSTRING LINES
15.1 The tape measure 266
15.2 What tape measure skills should I have? 267
15.2 What are the different types of tape measure? 267
15.3 How can ( improve the accuracy of my taping? 267
15.4 How do I use the tape measure for setting out? 270
15.5 How do I set out on sloping ground? 273
15.6 How do I take an accurate measurement on sloping ground? 273
15.7 What are the effects of sloping ground? 274
15.8 Sources of error in taping 274
15.9 Care of the steel tape 276
15.10 How do I calibrate my paces? 276
13.5 How do I measure the horizontal and vertical distance at the same time? 243
13.6 What is the accuracy of the tie distance/compute inverse function? 243
13.7 How can I check the accuracy of the tie distance/compute inverse function? 243
13.8 How do I measure between two points I have previously measured or input using the tie distance/compute inverse function? 244
13.9 Stakeout function (also called ‘Set out' or 'Layout’)  244
13.10 How do I optimise accuracy when using the Stake out mode? 245
13.11 Why have the arrows disappeared from the screen? 245
13.12 How do I use tracking mode? 245
13.13 How do I use the red laser dot? 245
13.14 Why is there very fast beeping? 246
13.15 Why is the point not where I am expecting it to be? it) 246
13.16 Why is my setting out not tying in with other points? 246
13.17 Survey function 247
13.18 What should be the accuracy of a survey? 247
13.19 Reference Line function (also called ‘refline’ or 'point to line’)  247
13.20 What are the advantages of the Reference Line function? 248
13.21 What is the Reference Arc function? 248
13.22 Remote Height function 249
13.23 Area measurement function 250
13.24 Volume measurement function  250
13.25 How do I measure the volume of something if I can't see ail faces of it from a single set-up? 251
13.26 How close together should the points be for volume measurement? 251
CHAPTER14 - GNSS EQUIPMENT
14.1 GNSS 252
14.2 What is GNSS? 252
14.3 What GNSS skills should I have? 253
14.4 GNSS Terminology 254
15.11 How Can I Calibrate My Boot Size? 277
15.12 String lines 277
15.13 What is a laser measure? 277
CHAPTER 16 - PIPE LASERSAND MACHINE CONTROL
15.1 The pipe laser 279
16.2 Machine control 280
CHAPTER17 - SURVEY SOFTWARE - COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD)
17.1 What CAD skills do I need as a Site Engineer? 281
Here are some useful skills for site engineers: |E| 281
17.2 What is the difference between CAD and AutoCAD? 282
17.3 Do all setting out engineers need CADskills? 282
17.4 Does having CAD skills makes you a better setting out engineer? 282
17.5 What are the benefits of learning CAD skills? 283
17.6 How can t get started with CAD? 283
17.7 What are the different types of survey software available? 284
17.8 What are the benefits to employers of training their engineers in CAD? 284
17.9 What are some common errors when working with CAD? 284
17.10 What is raw survey data? 285
17.11 What is a break line? 285
CHAPTER 18 - STAGES OFSETTING OUT
18.1 What are the different stages of setting out? 286
18.2 What is primary stage setting out? 286
18.3 What is secondary stage setting out? 287
18.4 What is tertiary stage setting out? 287
18.5 What is the principle of working from the whole to the part? 287
18.6 What are control points? 287
18.7 What is the difference between horizontal control and vertical control? 288
18.8 What should primary control, points be made of? 288
18.9 Where should primary control points be located? 290
18.10 How many primary control points should there be? 290
18.11 Can primary control points be located outside of the site boundaries? 291
18.12 How do I establish the coordinates of primary control points? 291
18.13 How do I establish reduced levels of primary control points? 291
18.14 Why do I need secondary control points? 291
18.15 What is the relationship between primary and secondary control points? 292
18.16 How many secondary control points do I need? 292
18.17 Where should secondary control points be located? 292
18.18 What should secondary control point markers be made of? 293
18.19 Why bother with primary control points at all if secondary control points are sufficiently accurate? 293
18.20 Should I reference primary or secondary control points for tertiary stage setting out? 294
18.21 I have been given the values of the control points by another engineer. How do I know if they are sufficiently accurate? 294
18.22 What if I arrive on a site and there are retro targets, but no control points in the ground (PGMs)? 295
18.23 I've been using the control points for a while but have discovered they are wrong. What should I do? 297
CHAPTER 19 - HORIZONTAL CONTROL POINTS
19.1 Primary horizontal control points 299
19.2 The traverse 299
19.3 What are the different types of traverse? 300
19.4 How do I measure and record the traverse data? 302
19.5 How do I take 5 consecutive readings? 304
19.6 What if there is a big variation between the repeated distances? 305
19.7 Why do I need to record the distance 5 times? 305
19.8 What is the allowable error between left face and right face readings? 305
19.9 How does angular error translate into a distance error? 306
19.10 How does a distance error translate into an angular error? 306
19.11 Traverse table 307
19.12 Forward bearings 310
19.13 How do I establish the forward bearing from the first station to the second? 311
19.14 How do I measure the forward bearing from a drawing? 311
19.15 How do I calculate the forward bearings for the traverse? 313
19.16 What is an angular misclosure and how do I calculate it? 314
19.17 How do i know the coordinates of my starting points? 320
19.18 How do I determine the coordinates of an existing feature? 321
19.19 How do I determine the coordinates of a point which is offset from an existing feature? 321
19.20 Station coordinates are given on the design drawings. CanI use these? 323
19.21 What is the allowable distance misclosure for a traverse? 323
19.22 What is the distance between the traverse points? 323
19.23 How can I improve the accuracy of my traverse? 324
19.24 Can I use a spreadsheet for traverse calculations? 324
19.25 Why am I getting completely different answers for my reduced angles taken from the same point? 325
19.26 Why am I getting large errors between left face and right face? 326
19.27 My LFR/RFR angle checks seem ok, but why am I finding a large misclosure in my traverse? 326
19.28 How do I establish the coordinates of secondary control points? 326
19.29 Can I determine the coordinates of retro targets using a resection set-up? 329
19.30 Is there any situation in which i t is ok to use a resection to determine the coordinates of new retro targets? 329
19.31 How do I extend my primary control network to take in a new area? 331
CHAPTER 20 - VERTICAL CONTROL POINTS
20.1 Primary vertical control points 333
20.2 Using an automatic level to establish vertical control points 333
20.3 Transferring a TBM 335
20.4 How do I transfer a TBM? 336
20.5 How can I minimise the errors when transferring a TBM? 340
20.5 How do I use the total station to establish primary vertical control points? 340
20.7 How do i set up secondary control points for reduced levels? 340
20.8 How do I used the total station to establish the values of secondary vertical control points? 341
20.9 What is the correct procedure for tying in retro targets to primary TBMs? 341
20.10 How do I use the tie distance/compute inverse function to measure the reduced level of retro targets? 341
20.11 Can I use the survey function to determine the reduced levels of the retros? 344
20.12 Where does the initial reduced level come from? 344
20.13 How do I set up my second TBM? 345
CHAPTER 21 - COORDINATES, BASELINESAND OFFSET LINES
21.1 How do I set up a coordinate system if the design does not provide one? 347
21.2 What are the benefits of coordinates over grid lines? 349
21.3 What are the drawbacks of using coordinates? 349
21.4 What is a baseline? 350
21.5 How do I set out or measure from a baseline using a tape measure? 352
21.6 How do I set out points from a baseline using two tape measures? 353
21.7 How do I determine the position of an existing point in relation to a baseline using a tape measure? 354
21.8 How do I use a baseline with a total station? 354
21.9 What are offset lines? 355
21.10 What size of offset should I use? 355
21.11 How do I set out offsets? 355
21.12 Why might I need to extend a line? 356
21.13 How should I extend a line beyond its original end points? 356
CHAPTER 22 - PROFILE BOARDS
22.1 Profile boards 357
22.2 How do profile boards work? 359
22.3 What are the advantages of setting up profile boards and batter rails? 359
22.4 What are the drawbacks of using profile boards and batter rails? 360
22.5 What is a traveler? 360
22.6 How do I know what the traveler length should be? 360
22.7 What distance should profile boards be offset? 361
22.8 How do I use profile boards over a large area? 361
22.9 How far apart should profile boards be? 362
22.10 What is the maximum traveler length? 363
22.11 What are double-headed profiles used for? 363
22.13 What is a double-headed traveler used for? 363
22.14 What are stepped profiles? 363
22.15 Profile boards for level excavation 363
22.16 Profile boards for a sloping excavation 366
22.17 How do I set out profile boards for a drainage run? 366
22.18 How do I set out pegs in a straight line by eye? 370
22.19 Are profile boards re-usable? 370
22.20 Can I use GNSSfor setting up profile boards? 370
22.21 Is there a standard way of colour-coding and marking-up profile boards and batter rails?371
CHAPTER 23 - BATTER RAILS
23.1 What are batter rails? 374
23.2 How do I set up batter rails for cutting on level ground? 374
23.3 How do I set up batter rails for fill on level ground? 377
23.4 How do I set up batter rails on sloping ground? 379
23.5 How can I use batter rails for level control? 379
23.6 How do I set out the position of profile boards and batter rails? 379
23.7 Alternatives to batter rails 380
CHAPTER 24 -CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES
24.1 Topsoil,strip 383
24.2 What is topsoil? 384
24.3 How do I mark out the area to be stripped of topsoil? 385
24.4 Area calculations for topsoil strip 385
24.5 Volume calculations for topsoil strip 385
24.6 Excavations 386
24.7 How do I know what gradient to set the sloping sides (batters) of the excavation to?386
24.8 What setting out is involved in excavations? 387
24.9 What if the dig level is too high or too low? 387
24.10 Blinding concrete 387
24.11 How should I set out blinding? 388
24.12 How do I check blinding? 391
24.13 What can go wrong with blinding? 392
24.14 Is it better to aim to set blinding slightly low or slightly high? 392
24.15 Strip footings 393
24.16 What is involved in setting out a strip footing? 394
24.17 Anchor bolts 397
24.18 What is a bolt group? 398
24.19 Who sets out the anchor bolt positions? 398
24.20 What accuracy is required for bolt positions? 398
24.21 How do I set out anchor bolts? 399
24.22 What is the procedure for hanging bolts? 403
24.23 How to set out X-axis centreline marks on reinforcement 407
24.24 How to set out Y-axis centreline marks 409
24.25 What is the procedure for floating bolts? 409
24.26 When should the floating method be used and when should the hanging method? 412
24.27 What if the steel reinforcement is in the way of the bolt cones? 412
24.28 When setting out column centres, which is more critical: primary control points or internal accuracy? 412
24.29 What if the bolt positions are set out incorrectly? 412
24.30 Foundation piles 413
24.31 What is involved in setting out piles? 415
24.32 Shutter positions for reinforced concrete members 418
24.33 As-built surveys 419
24.34 Highways (roads, footways, roundabouts and car parks) 419
24.35 What is a road string? 421
24.36 Reinforcement levels and positions 422
24.37 Cover to reinforcement 422
24.38 What is the problem with not enough cover? 423
24.39 What is the problem with too much cover? 423
24.40 Which is worse, not enough or too much cover? 424
24.41 What happens if it is wrong? 424
24.42 Kickers 425
24.43 Starter bars 427
24.44 Scabbing 429
24.45 Stop-ends 429
24.46 Cast-in pipes 430
24.47 RC walls 431
24.48 Setting out RC columns 433
24.49 Setting out RC slabs 435
24.50 Elevated RC slabs 435
24.51 Cubing up 437
24.52 Transferring levels between floors of a building. 437
24.53 Setting levels for steel column bases 438
24.54 Box-outs and recesses 438
24.55 What can go wrong with box-outs and cast-in items? 439
24.56 How do I set out a box-out in a wall? 440
24.57 Plumbing-up walls and columns 440
24.58 Why do we need to plumb-up columns and walls? 441
24.59 How do we ensure walls and columns are plumb? 442
24.60 How do I plumb-up long sections of wall? 442
24.61 What should be considered when plumbing walls and columns? 442
24.62 At what point in the construction process should plumbing be carried out? 442
24.63 How is the verticality of reinforced concrete elements adjusted? 443
24.64 How is the verticality of steel columns adjusted? 443
24.65 Plumbing method 1 - Offset and staff 443
24.66 Plumbing method 2 - Coordinates of retro targets 446
24.67 Plumbing method 3 - Reflectorless version of plumbing method 2 447
24.68 Plumbing method 4 - Using the 'Reference Line’ function with retro targets (total station) 448
24.69 Plumbing method 5 - Reflectorless version of plumbing method 4 450
24.70 Plumbing method 6 - String line 450
24.71 Plumbing method 7 - Set up on the centre line of the column 453
24.72 Plumbing method 8 - Set up in line with the outside edge of the column. 457
24.73 Plumbing method 9 - Spirit level 459
24.74 Plumbing method 10 - How NOTto plumb up a column 460
24.75 Tunnelling projects 460
24.76 Coplaning 461
24.77 High-rise buildings 461
CHAPTER 25 - CONCRETE DEFECTS
25.1 Concrete defects 462
25.2 Spelling 462
25.3 Honeycombing 462
25.4 Voids 463
25.5 Missing reinforcement 464
CHAPTER 26 - SETTING OUT CURVES
26.1 Curve geometry 465
26.2 Curve geometry in road design 465
26.3 Circular curve terminology 466
26.4 Formulae for circular curves 467
26.5 Different methods of setting out horizontal curves 469
26.6 Calculating the coordinates at points on a curve 470
26.7 Setting out a curve by locating the centre 474
26.8 Setting out a curve by offsets from the tangent 475
26.9 Setting out a curve by offsets from the long chord 476
26.10 Setting out a curve by deflection angles using the total station 476
26.11 Setting out a curve by deflection angles using a tape and digital theodolite 477
26.12 Vertical curves 479
26.13 Methods for setting out vertical curves 480
26.14 Vertical curve calculations 480
CHAPTER27 -CONTOURING
27.1 What is contouring? 483
27.2 What are contour lines? 483
27.3 How do I create contour lines? 483
27.4 How do I use contour lines to create a section? 486
27.5 How do I use contour lines to calculate a gradient? 487
CHAPTER 28 - MATHS
28.1 Pythagoras's Theorem (Calculating the diagonal) 488
28.2 Why would I want to calculate the diagonal of a square or rectangle? 489
28.3 How do I find the length of a side if ! already know the diagonal? 490
28.4 Angle Geometry 491
28.5 The opposite angles rule 491
28.6 The corresponding angles rule 492
28.8 Adding and subtracting angles 492
28.10 What are degrees minutes and seconds (DMS)? 494
28.11 How do I convert degrees, minutes and seconds into a decimal angle? 494
28.12 How do I convert a decimal angle into degrees minutes and seconds? 494
28.13 How do I work with degrees, minutes and seconds in my calculator? 495
28.14 What are radians? 495
28.15 When do I need to use radians in setting out? 496
28.16 Calculation of areas 496
28.17 Calculation of volumes 498
28.18 Similar triangles 500
28.19 Trigonometry 501
28.20 How do I know which is the 'opposite', 'adjacent' and 'hypotenuse'? 502
28.21 What do sin'1 cos-1 and tan’1 mean? 503
28.22 How do I use the trigonometry formulae? 503
28.23 Sine rule 507
28.24 Cosine rule 509
28.25 Coordinate geometry 510
28.26 Cartesian coordinates (also known as rectangular coordinates) 511
28.27 Polar coordinates 512
28.28 Partial coordinates 514
28.29 Whole circle bearings 515
28.30 Local or global coordinates 517
28.31 Grid rotations and scale factors 517
28.32 Calculator trouble shooting 518
28.33 Gradient/ grade/ slope/ fall 519
28.34 Calculator shortcut for Pythagoras 521
28.35 setting out by bearing and distance 521
28.36 Bearing and distance calculations 522
28.37 Finding the coordinates of a point on a Line 526
APPENDICES
LEICA TS06 532
LEICA TS07 545
LEICA TS09 557
LEICA TS15 569
LEICA TS16 588
LEICA ICON 604
TOPCON - MAGNET 614
TRIMBLE -ACCESS 626

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