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Motors and Controls in Hazardous Areas Edition 2020 (PDF)

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Pages: 187 pages
Size: 91 MB
Publisher: HOTA
Author (s): Ian Staff
Language: English
Date of Publication: 2020

This book 'Motors and Control in Hazardous Areas' is the third book in the series.
HOTA have the franchise to several courses under the heading of 'CornpEx' which is a globally recognised, competency-based set of training packages with JTL as the national body in overall control of the CornpEx Scheme.

This book should only be treated as an advisory guide to motors and control in Hazardous Areas.
HOTA's assessment suite is a world class facility and delegates are allotted dueir own fully equipped assessment bay.

The first part of the book after 'History' describes right from the basics how the DC Motor works, how we control it and what faults may occur to stop the motor working.

It talks about DC Motors being magnets, either an electro magnet rotor spinning within a permanent magnet stator, a permanent magnet rotor running in an electromagnetic field or an electromagnetic rotor running in an electromagnetic field.

The DC section gives the reader a good understanding of how electrical energy can combine with magnetic energy to form mechanical energy and gives the reader a very good understanding of how a basic motor actually works.

There are different wiring arrangements for the different types of DC motor and how to build two very simple ones in the classroom with a few bits of wire and a battery and a ball bearing.
A large section of the book is dedicated to how the Asynchronous three phase and single phase AC induction motors work in detail as these are the most common motors of modern day.
Control circuits of the induction motor and soft start systems are discussed in detail along with fault finding systems.

The back few pages discuss Hazardous Area Zones for Gases, Vapours and Dusts.
Gas and Dust Groups are discussed along with Surface Temperatures and Temperature Classification.

Ignition temperatures of various Gases and Dusts play a large part in choosing the Temperature Classification of equipment. Protection Systems are also discussed such as Exd Flameproof, Exe Increased Safety, Exp Pressurization, Exde Dual Protection, Exn Reduced Risk and Ext Protection by Enclosure.

Ates Categories and IEC Equipment Protection Levels (EPLs) are discussed and what the rnarldngs would be on our motor and where and where not it can be installed.


About the Author 3
Humberside Offshore Training Association (I-IOTA):
Types of AC 8cDC Motor
Section 1 History
The Electric Motor History: 18th Century
The Electric Motor Sum Up
Section 2 The DC Motor
The Basic DC Electric Motor:
Flerning's Rules:
The Permanent Magnet Stator (PMDC)
Section 3 Armature -- Stator Commutator
The DC Motor Armature:
DC Motor Wound Stator/Wound Rotor (A.rmatule):
Fitting the Armature into the Stator:
Section 4 DC Motor Winding Combinations
DC Series Motor
DC Shunt Motor
The DC Compound Motor
Separately Excited DC Motor
lnterpole Compound DC Motor
DC/AC Universal Motor:
Printed Circuit Board (PCB) DC Motor
DC Hornopolar Motor:
Brushless/Permanent Magnet Rotor: (BLDC)
IPM ac SPM DC Synchronous Motors:
DC Synchronous Surface Permanent Magnets (SPM)
DC Synchronous Interior Permanent Magnets (IPM)
Trapezoidal Brushless DC Motor (PMAC/BLDC/PMSM):
Rotating Magnetic Field:
The DC Ball Bearing Motor:
Some DC Motor Abbreviations:
Some of the DC Motor Phenomenon/Terminology:
DC Motor Faults
Section 5 From DC to AC
From DC to AC:
AC Induction:
Three Phases:
Back to the Rotating Magnetic Field:
Star/Delta windings:
Motor Pole
Poles v Speed:
Reversing a Three Phase Motor:
Motor Direction Indicator
Section 6 Synchronous Motor
Synchronous Induction Motor:
Synchronous Motors:
Section 7 The Induction Generator
Induction generator
Section 8 Single Phase AC Motors
A Capacitor:
Capacitor Start Induction Motor:
Capacitor Run Motor/Permanent Split Phase Capacitor Motor:
Capacitor Start/Capacitor Run Induction Motor:
Reversal of Capacitor Run Motor:
AC Single Phase Capacitor Motor Facts:
Shaded Pole Induction Motors:
Aluminum Disc Motor:
AC &DC Motors Summary
Section 9 External Sections of the Motor
External Parts of the Induction Motor:
Motor Eye Bolts 8c Shackles:
Is the Lifting Eye still in the Motor? (Company Policy)
Eye Bolt Standards:
The Coupling:
Electric Motor Vibration Problem Flowchart:
Coupling Cover:
What is checked on a VISUAL Inspection?
What is checked on a DETAILED guard Inspection?
Section 10 Bearings and Bearing Currents
Motor Bearings:
The Ball Bearing
The Roller Bearing:
Motor Bearing Problems:
Stator to Rotor Coupling Current:
Rotor to Shaft Current:
Stator to Shaft Current:
Stator to Ground Current
Frosting (Pitting):
Bearing Condition Monitoring:
Section 11 Motor Cooling Systems
Motor Overheating Causes:
The motor air flow is impeded:
The motor undergoes several starts in quick succession: .
The motor is not big enough for the load:
The supply voltage is low:
Motor or load developing a fault
The Temperature Rise of the motor is too high
Large Motors with Heat Exchanger:
Section 12 Motor Testing Insulation Resistance & Winding Balance
Testing Continuity/Balance:
Winding Balance:
Single Phasing Current:
The motor windings do not balance
Testing 'Clip On' Ammeter Balance:
Motor has low Insulation Resistance (IR):
Motor has water or damp inside
Motor has a winding fault to earth
Testing Motor EaLt'th Path:
Section 13 Motor Data Plate
Motor Data Plate:
IS Electric Motor Company Ltd. Hull:
Induction Motor
Serial Number:
Model Number:
Frame Size:
(Frequency) Hz:
(Kilowatt) KW:
Revolutions per Minute (RPM):
Star and Delta:
Insulation class:
Full Load Current:
Drive End (DE):
Non-Drive End (NDE)
Rating MCR:
Ingress Protection (IP66)
Amb. 40°C:
SF 1.15:
Mancimum Temperature Rise 70°C:
Hazardous Area Markings
A Roman 'II' after the Atex Mark:
Atex Number
Electric Motor Overhaul Report Form OR1:
Section 14 Three Phase Motor Control
AC Motor Control:
A very basic Single Phase Control Circuit (DOL):
'Direct on Line' (voL) 2 Phase Control Circuit:
Switch Fuse or Fused Switch?
Main Fuses So Isolator:
High Rupturing Capacity (HRC) Fuses
The Element:
Motor Fuses je: TIAl\/163
Fuse Sizes for Selected KW/FLC:
The Voltmeter:
The Analogue Ammeter:
Ammeter Readings:
Start Current:
Run Current/Full Load Current (FLC)
Motor on overload
No Load Current: .
Cracked Rotor Bar Current:
Current Transformer:
Motor Overloads
Motor Running Satisfactory
Motor on Overload:
Motor back to Normal:
Motor Single Phasing
Motor Single Phasing:
Magnetic (Dashpot) Ovet'loads:
Solid State Starter and Overloadsz
Test Equipment:
Secondary Thermal Overload Current Injection
The Current Transformer:
Primary Thermal Overload Current Injection:
Current Transformers (CTs)
Thermal Overload Report Form TO4:
Overload Connections:
A very basic Hand/Off/Auto Control Circuit (DOL):
The Contactor:
Motor Earth Leakage Protection:
Starter Indicator Lamps:
Starter Test Supply Voltage:
tarter Overhaul Report Form OR2:
So what common faults can there be on the Starter
a - Remote or local Stay-put Stop button pushed in:
b - The Overloads have tripped:
c - Main fuse blown:
d - The Control Fuse has blown
Section 15 Three Phase Motor Soft Starting
Star - Delta Starter:
Rotor Resistance Starter:
Liquid Rotor Resistance Starter:
Auto Transformer Start:
Solid State Soft-starting:
Primary Resistance Start:
High Frequency/Inverter Fed Drives
Section 16 Induction Motor Fault Finding
Section 17 The Motor Control Centre (MCC)
The Motor Control Centre Description:
The Motor Control Centre Starter Location:
The Equipment Numbering System:
MCC Starter Locations:
Motor Size Chart:
Section 18 Isolation & De-Isolation
Isolation 1: Running:
Stopped, Switched Ofil8c Locked Off:
The Lock-out Device:
Check Lock Offlsolation:
Fuse Removed/Replacement:
Section 19 Power Units KW, KVA, KVar, KWh Torque, Power
Factor Resistance, Impedance, Root Mean Squared, InductIve
Kilo Volt Amps (KVA):
KiloVArs (KVAI):
Kilowatt Hours:
Kilowatt  v Torque
Power Factor
Inductive Reactance
Resistance &Impedance;.........................................................................................................
Electromagnetic Inductance:
Root Mean Squared (RMS)
Section 20 Zones, Gas/Dust Groups, Temperature Classes
Motors for Hazardous Areas:
Zones and Protection:
Zone 1 Protections:
Zone 2 Protections
Gas Groups
Gas Group;
Temperature Class:
Temperature Classification:
Dusts: Zones, Categories and EPLs 179
Categories Gases & Vapours: EN60079
Categories Dusts: EN60079 - BS 61241
Equipment Protection Levels (EPLs) Gases pa Vapours:
Equipment Protection Levels (EPLs) Dusts 179
Dusts: Protections, Dust Groups and Dust T. Classes
Dust Groups:
Temperature Classification:
Combustion with Dusts
Section 20 Index
History of Inventions

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